Vol. 13 No. 3 (2022): Modelling knowledge, archival and bibliographic standards in comparison. 1st JLIS.it Seminar - 19 May 2022

A look at metadata processing beyond Libraries

Valdo Pasqui
University of Florence
Industry, innovations and infrastructure

Published 2022-09-15


  • Metadata,
  • Open Data,
  • Web Services,
  • API,
  • Ontologies,
  • Controlled vocabularies,
  • Interoperability
  • ...More

How to Cite

Pasqui, Valdo. 2022. “A Look at Metadata Processing Beyond Libraries”. JLIS.It 13 (3):29-48. https://doi.org/10.36253/jlis.it-492.


Since many years libraries, archives and museums, the institutions entrusted with the dissemination and conservation of cultural heritage, contributed to metada standards definition, meta-dating methodologies and metadata representation in different syntaxes, by partecipating to national projects and international initiatives.
Management systems and catalogs used in these contexts borrow from information and telecommunication technology tools, metodoligies and techniques to generate, organize, share and use various types of metadata. But the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) area is not only a supplier of technological tools and solutions as it also constitutes a rich basin in which metadata plays a fundamental role in designing architectures, modeling information systems and implementing services.
Through an overview that includes national and European initiatives, especially in the digital transformation process of the public sector, this paper aims to offer a look to metadata beyond the traditional boundary of libraries and other cultural institutions and to underline some relevant aspects such as standardization, sharing, reuse and metadata quality assessment.
This framework highlights the need to carry on with the path of cooperation between different functional domains and organizational contexts in order to consolidate and extend the (re)use of metadata schemes, ontologies and controlled vocabularies both in the redesign of digitized processes and in the implementation of services supporting them.  By undertaking  since design early stages a multidisciplinary approach based on metadata standards can ensure greater flexibility and higher interoperability. This vision requires the enhancement of intersectorial skills that meld metadata methodologies and syntaxes representation basic knowledge  with the ability to model functional domains using metadata schemes and ontologies.


Metrics Loading ...


  1. AgID (Agenzia per l’Italia Digitale).2022. Attuazione Misure PNRR. https://www.agid.gov.it/it/agenzia/attuazione-misure-pnrr
  2. ArCo. 2017. MiC (Ministero della Cultura). Progetto Arco – Architettura della conoscenza. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://dati.beniculturali.it/progetto-arco-architettura-della-conoscenza/
  3. Bagley, Philip.1968. Extension of programming language concepts. Philadelphia: University City Science Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 30, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20121130091053/http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/680815.pdf
  4. CAD. 2021 Decreto Legislativo 7 marzo 2005, n. 82 - Codice dell'amministrazione digitale. Successive modifiche (Ultimo aggiornamento all'atto pubblicato il 31/12/2021). https://www.normattiva.it/uri-res/N2Ls?urn:nir:stato:decreto.legislativo:2005-03-07;82!vig=
  5. DCAT. 2020. Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) - Version 2 - W3C Recommendation 04 February 2020. https://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat-2/
  6. DCAT-AP. 2022. Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) Application Profile for data portals. https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/collection/semantic-interoperability-community-semic/solution/dcat-application-profile-data-portals-europe/release/210
  7. DCAT-AP_IT. 2022. DCAT-AP_IT v1.1 – Profilo italiano di DCAT-AP. AgID (Agenzia per l’Italia Digitale). https://dati.gov.it/content/dcat-ap-it-v10-profilo-italiano-dcat-ap-0
  8. Directive (EU) 2019/1024. 2019 Directive (EU) 2019/1024 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on opendata and the re-use of public sector information. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32019L1024
  9. eduPerson. 2016. eduPerson Object Class Specification (201602). Internet2. February 2016. http://software.internet2.edu/eduperson/internet2-mace-dir-eduperson-201602.html
  10. e-GOV. n.d. Releases for e-Government Core Vocabularies solution. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/collection/semantic-interoperability-community-semic/solution/e-government-core-vocabularies
  11. EUDati. 2020. Comunicazione della Commissione al Parlamento Europeo, al Consiglio, al Comitato Economico e Sociale Europeo e al Comitato delle Regioni. Una strategia europea per i dati. Document 52020DC0066. 2020. https://eurlex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/TXT/?qid=1593073685620&uri=CELEX%3A52020DC0066
  12. FAIR. n.d. FAIR (Findability, Accessibiliy, Interoperability, Interoperabilità and Reusability) Principles. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://www.go-fair.org/fair-principles/
  13. Fielding, Roy T. 2000. Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures University of California, Irvine, 2000. https://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/pubs/dissertation/top.htm
  14. GÉANT.n.d. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. http://www.geant.org/
  15. IBM. 2014. 100 ans d’IBM en France. http://centenaireibmfrance.blogspot.com/2014/04/1955-terme-ordinateur-invente-par-jacques-perret.html
  16. INSPIRE. 2007. Directive 2007/2/EC of March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32007L0002
  17. INSPIRE_REG_IT. n.d. INSPIRE Italia Registry. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://registry.geodati.gov.it/registry
  18. INSPIRE_TG. 2022 Technical Guidance for the implementation of INSPIRE dataset and service metadata based on ISO/TS 19139:2007. https://github.com/INSPIRE-MIF/technical-guidelines/blob/2022.1/metadata/metadata-iso19139/metadata-iso19139.adoc#conformance-classes-for-spatial-data-services
  19. Joinup-CV. 2022. e-Government Core-Vocabularies. https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/collection/semantic-interoperability-community-semic/solution/e-government-core-vocabularies/release/200-0
  20. LGNVPIP. 2020. Linee Guida Nazionali per la Valorizzazione del Patrimonio Informativo Pubblico 13 Febbraio 2020. https://docs.italia.it/media/pdf/lg-patrimonio-pubblico/bozza/lg-patrimonio-pubblico.pdf
  21. Media Types. 2022. Media Types. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 2022. https://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml
  22. NSO n.d. Nodo di smistamento degli ordini di acquisto delle amministrazioni pubbliche (NSO). MEF (Ministero dell’Economia e Finanze) Ragioneria Generale dello Stato. https://www.rgs.mef.gov.it/VERSIONE-I/e_government/amministrazioni_pubbliche/acquisti_pubblici_in_rete_apir/nodo_di_smistamento_degli_ordini_di_acquisto_delle_amministrazioni_pubbliche_nso/
  23. OAIS. 2012. Reference Model For An Open Archival Information System (OAIS). Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. June 2012. Standard ISO 14721:2012. https://public.ccsds.org/pubs/650x0m2.pdf
  24. OASIS. n.d. Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://www.oasis-open.org/
  25. OAS. n.d.OpenAPI Specification Version 3.0.3 Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://swagger.io/specification/
  26. OpenBadges 2.0. 2021. Open Badges v2.0 IMS Final Release. https://www.imsglobal.org/sites/default/files/Badges/OBv2p0Final/index.html
  27. OCDS. n.d. The Open Contracting Data Standard. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://www.open-contracting.org/data-standard/
  28. OCDS_Port. n.d. Portale dei dati aperti dell’Autorità Nazionale Anticorruzione. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://dati.anticorruzione.it/opendata/ocds
  29. PDFA. 2005. ISO 19005-1:2005 Document Management - Electronic document file format for long term preservation - Part 1: Use of PDF 1.4 (PDF/A-1). https://www.iso.org/standard/38920.html
  30. PTIPA. 2021. Piano triennale per l’informatica nella PA – Aggiornamento 2021 – 2023 (versione notificata alla Commissione Europea) - Agenzia per l’Italia Digitale e Dipartimento per la Trasformazione Digitale. Roma, ottobre 2021. https://www.agid.gov.it/sites/default/files/repository_files/piano_triennale_per_linformatica_nella_pubblica_amministrazione_2021-2023.pdf
  31. RDF. 2014. RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax. W3C Recommendation 25 February 2014. https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/
  32. REFEDS. n.d. REFEDS (the Research and Education FEDerations group). Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://refeds.org/
  33. RFC 2252. 1997. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3): Attribute Syntax Definitions. RFC 2252 December 1997. https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc2252
  34. RFC 2256. 1997. A Summary of the X.500(96) User Schema for use with LDAPv3. RFC 2256 December 1997. https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2256.txt
  35. RFC 2798. 2000. Definition of the inetOrgPerson LDAP Object Class. RFC 2798 April 2000. https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2798.txt
  36. RFC 4519. 2006. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): Schema for User Applications. RFC 4519 June 2006. https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4519.txt
  37. SAML. n.d. Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) v2.0. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://www.oasis-open.org/standards/
  38. SHACH. 2022. SCHAC - SCHema for Academia. https://wiki.refeds.org/display/STAN/SCHAC
  39. SDG. n.d. The single digital gateway and Your Europe. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022 https://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/single-digital-gateway_it
  40. SDI n.d. Fatturazione elettronica verso la Pubblica amministrazione. Sistema di Interscambio. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://www.fatturapa.gov.it/it/sistemainterscambio/cose-il-sdi/
  41. SPID_AT. n.d. SPID Tabella attributi. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://www.agid.gov.it/sites/default/files/repository_files/regole_tecniche/tabella_attributi_idp_v1_0.pdf
  42. SPID_REG. n.d. SPID Registry. Ultimo accesso 5 Maggio 2022. https://registry.spid.gov.it/
  43. SPID_RT. n.d. SPID Metadata. https://github.com/italia/spid-regole-tecniche/blob/96287a228c8dbf817a4b0b1c41e234d4e231a830/metadata.rst
  44. TALLIN. 2017. Tallinn Declaration on eGovernment. https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/document.cfm?doc_id=47559
  45. Berners-Lee, Tim. 2006. Linked Data—Design Issues. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  46. Vallejo, Irene. 2021. Payprus. L’infinito in un giunco. La grande avventura del libro nel mondo antico. Firenze: Giunti Editore/Bompiani.
  47. Wiederhold, Gio. 1997. Database Design, Tokio: McGraw-Hill computer science series.
  48. W3CWS. 2004. Web Services Glossary W3C Working Group Note. 11 February 2004. https://www.w3.org/TR/2004/NOTE-ws-gloss-20040211/#webservice
  49. WSDL 2.0. 2007 Web Services Description Language (WSDL) Version 2.0 Part 1: Core Language. http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl20
  50. XSD. 2012. W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 1: Structures W3C Recommendation. 5 April 2012 https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-1/ e W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 2: Datatypes W3C Recommendation 5 April 2012 https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/